Alternative Fuels vs Ingenious Mechanics

By Webmaster Lee Gregory

December 25, 2013 12:42pm

With another peak oil crisis looming many are turning to alternative fuels and power systems to run their vehicles and provide enough electricity for their buildings. With dependence on foreign oil, there are scientist and inventors devoted to diverting our reliance away from regular petroleum fuels. Synthetic fuels made from waste products and biological organisms such as diesel made from plant scraps and animal excrement have been used to power vehicles. The articles I cited noted on how each type of bio-fuel (biological fuels) produced unique results during its testings. Some of these formulas for certain bio-fuels needed to undergo additional processing to make them fully potent and free of accumulated residue.

Cars that run on electric battery power of instead of liquidity fossil fuels  are another example of a secondary fuel source.  Its delayed incorporation into the mainstream is due to their impracticability such as its limited mpg (miles per gallon) and its likeliness of draining power is what necessitates the use of petrol. The key to making electric cars more useful is by extending their range and if they can be charged under 5 minutes or less it would make their use more conventional thus rectifying their practicality. The newer made electric cars have their bodies framed with lightweight materials.

The market for alternative-fueled vehicles is not imminently ready because that would cause engineers to shift their focus on superiority of mechanical engineering from redesigning the car’s outer casing to molding completely unique mechanical components. To generate an almost infinite phase of power it either requires the right mechanical contraption and latest methods of creating the smallest chain reaction that would increase the efficiency of fuel distribution.

Cars that run on air require a special design for them to cruise effectively. Peugeot Citroen is developing a hybrid version of an air-powered car that will enable a motorist to drive up to 50 minutes in city conditions without using any gas. The hydraulic pump forces compressed air against fluid that activates the wheels. The manufacturer will make it available in 2016.

http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/01/23/peugeot-car-that-runs-on-air-hybrid_n_2535024.html

Motor Development International (MDI) solely dedicates its engineering work on the improvement of air compressed vehicles. Their Airpod uses a 24 kg compressed air engine that is 2-cylinder with a capacity of 430cc that develops 7 kW at 1,500 rpm. It has a large tank volume of 260 liters and be filled with pneumatic (air pumping) unit that uses an electrical-plug in to connect into the outlet behind the ‘AIR’ Logo plate on the left side. They have patents that are protected in 127 countries and sell licenses and turnkey factories for the manufacturing and commercialization of their products. As long as people have the right licenses they can mass produce their own air-ran cars and engines locally which would be cheaper than importing and exporting conventional automobiles. They offer various micro production factories throughout the world. Since 1996, they made the first air compressed air engines and in 1998 made the first air-compressed cars (Green Taxi).

http://www.mdi.lu/english/

A Video for Motor Development’s Air Car;

Car Runs 200 KM on Compressed Air at Cost 2$

It is possible for a car running on compress air to go over 50 miles per hour. The Ku: Rin three-wheeled eco-car designed by Toyota has a engine that uses a reversed A/C compressor that shoots compressed air to create a bursts of speed but it only has a two mile range.

http://gizmodo.com/5843543/this-rocket-car-can-race-at-80mph-running-on-nothing-but-air

For an air powered car to be fuel efficient it needs to be pressurized to where it can pump that same air into its engine non-stop. It almost seems that air can be a strong source of fuel depending on a particular design of a vehicle’s mechanical parts. Maruf Karimov, a student at an academic school in they city of Samarkand, Uzbekistan, Maruf Karimov used his friends’ old car to create an engine that stored enough air for the car to be ridden for  several hundreds of meters. The drawback is that the speed of the car was very slow but the engineer is certain that output of the engine can be improved with time and effort. Karimov’s drawings and calculations are sent to specialist from Germany but the article stated that they’re unsure if he would continue his research  in Germany.

http://english.pravda.ru/science/tech/11-01-2008/103363-perpetual_engine-0/

There are hybrid air powered vehicles that use both a gasoline engine and an air-compressed system. The SA Peugeot Citroen’s new C3 VTi82 hatchback will go 81 miles, in optimum conditions but what makes this air compressed system is that there is no lithium batteries. The compressed air system provides power as well as storage; the energy is recovered from a gasoline when the car is slows down or brakes. The hybrid engine system of air and gasoline works in three ways. It can run on air alone if it cruises around town and if moving at speeds above 43 miles per hour, it uses its standard engine. The combined mode of fuel distribution is used if more power is needed at lower speeds. An electronic management unit switches modes automatically.

http://www.fastcoexist.com/1681429/this-air-powered-car-gets-81-miles-per-gallon

Peter Dearman’s version of the Air Car operates in a same functioning uses a steam engine but instead of steam, it is powered with cooled air at a temperature that is minus 300 degrees. The liquid air is contained in the beer keg before it flows into the engine. It heats and boils expanding back into a gas, pumping the pistons. Dearman’s engine is also very light, meaning manufacturers can build a car that could be made cheaply, even out of plastic since there is no metal required. His air car doesn’t use any batteries and it can be refilled in the same time as a gas-powered car.

http://abcnews.go.com/Technology/vintage-car-runs-air/story?id=18738263

The fiber-glass framed OneCAT five-seater, weighing just 350kg is driven by compressed air stored in carbon-fiber tanks built into the chassis. The tanks are filled in three minutes; much faster than a battery car and could be plugged into the mains for four hours and an on-board compressor follows through with the regeneration. If long journeys need to be commenced the compressed air that drive the pistons can be boosted by a fuel burner which heats the air so expansion increases the pressure on the pistons. The burner uses all types of liquid fuel  and reaches 120 mpg (miles per gallon) if it travels at long distances.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/7241909.stm

KUWAIT AIR CAR was designed by Eng. Fahad Al-Eid & Eng. Ahmed Al-Ali on July 2012. The project was supervised by Dr. Ehab Bani Hani at Australian College of Kuwait. Sponsored by Kuwait Chopper Workshop. Max Speed Reached 70 km/h & Driving Range 5.3 km. The simple design that models this prototype with its two tanks is a perfect miniature version of the Air Car.

AIR CAR Kuwait

Hydrogen can power cars and Toyota and Hyundai are planning to produce fuel-cell passenger vehicles that run on the gas and emit only water vapor as exhaust. Hydrogen uses a chemical process to separate out the electrons in molecules of the gaseous element that powers the car’s electric motor. These vehicles run on compressed hydrogen and emit only water vapor as exhaust. There aren’t that many hydrogen-filling stations in the United States so this breakaway from gasoline would require a change in the infrastructure.  A 2008 study by the National Academy of Sciences estimated that it could require $55 billion of public investment just to get two million hydrogen cars on U.S. roads by 2023.

http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/wonkblog/wp/2013/11/27/forget-plug-in-electric-cars-toyota-is-betting-on-hydrogen-fuel-cells/

There are vehicles that can not only run on water but they are powerful enough to generate a sizable amount of electrical power to run multiple appliances. The Luxury Sea MIG675 is a hydrogen powered boat that generates the gas using the seawater it is riding on. The hydrogen generator also supplies electricity without any batteries powering its home automated touchscreen for all onboard electrical devices, which includes an electric anchor roller, a 10-inch touchscreen controller, GPS, depth finder, rear-view camera, an Alpine audio system, a bar fridge with an electric retractable table, and an LED navigation lighting system. There are no CO2 emissions, no pressure tanks and no fire risk.

http://luxury-sea.com/

The physical design definitely matters when fabricating fuel-efficient vehicles which is why lightweight cars can sustain their power when using alternative fuels. The PAC-Car II set a new world record for its has reached 5385 km powered using hydrogen equivalent to 1 liter of gasoline in Ladoux, Switzerland on June 26,2005. 0.01857 liters of petrol (gasoline) was filled in the tank and the PAC-Car II rode for 100 km (15,212 mpg) from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich, Switzerland, to the Shell Eco Marathon in the Michelin Technology Centre, Ladoux, France, on 26 June 2005. This feat has made it the world’s most fuel efficient vehicle. The book that provides information about the PAC-Car II. The information will assist anyone who is designing an ultra lightweight land vehicle despite its source of energy (thermal engine, human power, solar panels…), and those who have an interest in fuel-cell applications. People who are graduate students and teachers of engineering have a unique source of information when it comes to learning about fuel-conserving vehicles.

http://law-journals-books.vlex.com/vid/jump-start-62718056

http://www.paccar.ethz.ch/news/index

http://www.guinnessworldrecords.com/records-1/most-fuel-efficient-vehicle/

The earliest developed versions of electrically-ran vehicles can take a long time for the battery to become fully regenerated but at times it all depends on the way these cars are built. The 2008 model of the Tesla Roadster the world’s fastest electric car goes from 0-60 in 3.9 seconds and the battery charges in 3 to 4 hours. It has a range of 244 miles per charge and the The car has no oil so there is no need for occasional changes and the only maintenance is updating the firmware, suspension, brakes, tires, and the cooling system for the batteries. Service centers are suppose to be open by the company in New York City, Miami, Chicago, D.C., and Seattle over the next 12 months.

Made in America: The world’s fastest electric car

http://mentalfloss.com/article/20227/made-america-worlds-fastest-electric-car

Gavin Young of the Electric Automobile Advocates noted on how they save costs on maintenance that is common with  petroleum ran vehicles. Owners of electric cars do not have to spend money on motor oil and motor oil filter changes, radiator fills and flushes, transmission flushes and repairs, clutch repairs, engine tune ups, DEQ emission testing, motor oil and motor oil filter changes, etc. The maintenance for electric vehicles involve changes in motor oil and its filter, radiator fills and flushes, transmission flushes and repairs, clutch repairs, engine tune ups, DEQ emission testing, et cetera.

http://www.earthtoys.com/emagazine.php?issue_number=03.08.01&article=advantages

http://www.earthtoys.com/emagazine.php?issue_number=03.04.01&article=electric_cars

The Porsche Panamera S E-Hybrid is ranked as the world’s fastest electric with its dual-electric petrol engine it can reach speeds of 155 mph (miles per hour) and streak 0-62 mph in just 3.7 seconds. It has a dual-electric petrol engine.

http://news.sky.com/story/1084187/china-worlds-fastest-electric-car-unveiled

The Zero-Emission concept brought to you by French car manufacturer, Renault is an electric vehicle that manages energy consumption (lighting, air conditioning, starter, etc.) and it has boosted the car’s range and reduces excess waste. The car has an insulated body and acid green windows that reduce variations in heat. This feature reduces heating and air conditioning needs. The Renault-Nissan team is also working a fuel-cell vehicle, Scenic ZEV H2 that will generate electricity by combining hydrogen and oxygen. Renault engineers placed high-pressure hydrogen tank and lithium-ion battery together with the Nissan-developed fuel cell is what makes the prototype and the car is suppose to only emit water vapors.

http://www.renault.com/en/innovation/eco-technologies/pages/s-orienter-vers-le-zero-emission.aspx

Alternative Energy eMagazine, an online periodical has noted on the disadvantages to many of the current technologies made for electric cars and how ultracapacitors are a good enhancement for the efficiency of electric vehicles. The current fuel cells have hydrogen/oxygen-based technology that use hydrogen for fuel and oxygen from the environment to create electricity. There is no existing infrastructure for hydrogen delivery and hydrogen can be really dangerous to handle safely. To avoid accidents, hydrogen tanks must large in volume and have a sturdiness that can withstand high storage pressures. The batteries in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) have multiple deficiencies that present many design challenges for automotive engineers.They have a hard time functioning in cold weather and when batteries are exposed to extreme conditions they have to be continually replaced. The power storage for HEVs is minimal which is why some manufacturers increased the number of batteries in their drive trains to boost high power functions. In higher energy functions, the power in batteries will rapidly drain and increasing the size of them will degrade the performance of automobiles and diminish the environmentally beneficial aspects of HEV design.

Lithium-ion batteries cannot instantly create “surges of power,” that is why they struggle to absorb regenerative braking power and cannot throttle speeds. All of those functions require peak power and that would ruin battery life of a Li-Ion car. Lithium-ion batteries are appropriate for high energy applications that require a small amount of electrical current during long-term operations.  The car’s is fine when the vehicle is “cruising” at a reasonable speed but vehicle performance wanes if the velocity of the car rapidly changes. Ni-MH and lead acid batteries can handle peaks loads but are very likely to discharge if used in this manner. They would have to be replaced every year or two. The limited capabilities of batteries is what makes truly makes electric vehicles insufficient for use.

Ultracapacitors offer a long cycle life, extreme temperature tolerance, and power rich design necessary for peak load performance. They can store a lot more energy than conventional capacitors and their large capacity has classified them as an alternative to batteries because they can be used as such. They deliver up to 10-20 more power (Joules/s or Wattage) than batteries.  Ultracapacitors being the size of a regular postage stamp or small soda container can improve HEV mechanical design by averting the use of additional batteries to handle peak loads. Batteries often fail to function in temperatures below 0 degrees Celsius, ultracapacitors can function in wide temperature ranges that as low as -40 degrees celsius. They can be charged from the primary power supply only to left as a backup power if the main energy source fails. By combining a batteries and ultracapacitors it would revolutionize designs in electric cars as durability and efficiency are finally achieved.

http://www.earthtoys.com/emagazine.php?issue_number=04.04.01&article=maxwell

The publication Haywired Pointless (Yet Awesome) Projects for the Electronically Inclined by Mike Rigsby teaches its readers to build some unique electronic devices. They have two particular projects that demonstrate the applicable use of ultra-capacitors in electric powered devices. The “no-battery electric car and flashlight” use only ultra-capacitors and no little external battery units. The flashlight can be charged in minutes and shine for up to 24 hours.

Phienergy, an Israeli company has made what they call an Aluminum-air battery with 50 plates of the metal with each plate providing enough fuel for 20 miles. In the metal-air battery, the oxidization of the metals lithium, zinc, and aluminum with oxygen coming from the air around us is what produces the energy. The plates must be physically switched out to charge them and the Al-air battery must also be refilled with water every 200 miles, to replenish the electrolyte. A Citroen C1 has used the Al-air battery in its trunk that serves as a range extender while the standard lithium battery is the primary energy source.

http://www.extremetech.com/extreme/151801-aluminium-air-battery-can-power-electric-vehicles-for-1000-miles-will-come-to-production-cars-in-2017

APET or Advanced Power and Energy Sources Transportation, is using a zinc-air fuel cell to power vehicles. The design uses a pouch filled with zinc that slides in and out of the fuel cell stack. They have a picture of a zinc fuel cell powering three 75 watt light bulbs and they will market their technology to bus systems and delivery vehicles.

http://www.greentechmedia.com/articles/read/a-car-powered-by-zinc

Efacec is the first manufacturer to receive ETL certification to allow their DC Fast Charge equipment. The Electric Cars on the market use Alternate Current to plug into its on-board charger to convert the AC power to Direct Current voltage. The DC Fast Charger is an off-board charger with a power output of 50 kW. The DC voltage goes straight to the battery of the electric vehicle through a completely separate wiring circuit in the vehicle. The Electric Vehicle must be designed to accept DC Fast Charges and the charging session is controlled by the vehicle. When it is connected the vehicle determines how much current it needs to charge the battery. Depending on the vehicle make(components that make it run). model, and initial battery state-of-charge DC Fast Chargers an EV battery in 15 to 30 minutes.

http://www.altenergymag.com/emagazine/2013/08/dc-fast-chargers-for-electric-cars/2132

I am surprised streams of lightning sparks hasn’t been contemplated when making a fast charging system. A lightning bolt can charge battery-operated electronics and produces between 1,000 and 5,000 megajoules of energy, enough to power a car for about 180 to 910 miles (290 to 1,450 kilometers). Beams of lightning shooting that shoot through a transformer, an electrical device that regulates the voltage level can be a simple cell phone. Researchers at the Tony Davies High Voltage Laboratory ran 200,000 volts through a transformer, charging a Nokia Lumia 925 within seconds. The technique is derived from a similar experiment done by Scientists at the University of Southhampton in the United Kingdom, prompted by phone maker Nokia.

http://energyblog.nationalgeographic.com/2013/10/01/lab-uses-lightning-bolt-to-charge-smartphone/

Filipinos have invented a sports car, Gitano 111 that is powered by electricity and charges its battery with their special “range extender” technology. The body of the car is made out of fiber glass and mag wheels, a type made from lightweight magnesium steel having a pattern of holes and spokes around the hub. The dashboard and windows are made out of Abaca,  a herbeceous plant indigenous to the Philippines and part of the banana family that yields Manila hemp. The lightweight electric motor weighs just over 100kg and puts out about 250bhp. The car was manufactured by Michel Motorsport and a European company has partnered with them for mass production of the Gitano 111.

http://philippine-made.blogspot.com/2011/10/gt-111-philippine-made-electric-sports.html

Solar Power Cars:

Vehicles that use these solar panels to charge the battery use plates that are made from the melting of polysilicon rock to melt the silicon into a single giant crystal with its atoms perfectly aligned. Polysilicon rocks are added to a quartz crucible, a container that can withstand high temperatures in which metals or other substances can be melted and the fluid content can be recovered. A silicon disk with a tiny amount of boron and oron dopant added creates a producing a positive electrical orientation of the crystal. The final step is to  enclose within thick walls of insulating graphite locked inside a cylindrical furnace.

http://www.solarworld-usa.com/solar-101/making-solar-panels

Mounting these panels onto a vehicle can keep the power system of a car charged as long as there is plenty of sunlight. The world’s first solar-powered automobile, the “Summobile,” was built by William G. Cobb of the General Motors Corporation and presented at the General Motors Powerama auto show held in Chicago, Illinois. Cobb’s model introduced the field of photovoltaics, a process where the sun’s rays are converted into electricity when exposed to certain surfaces. The Photoelectric cells constructed out of selenium ( a nonmetal substance with conducting properties) are built into the Sunmobile.

http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/william-cobb-demonstrates-first-solar-powered-car

Improvements of designs in solar energy continue and just recently a Dutch engineers have created a solar-powered car that forms more energy than it uses. The car Stella has enough power to seat a family of four and it has the ability to travel twice as far as a standard electric car before needing to be recharged.  Its superior mileage has to do with the Stella being made with high grade aluminium and carbon fibre. It weights around 380 kg, 1120 kg lighter than the average electrical car. The team placed large solar panels on the roof of the car and on a sunny day it can can travel up to 420 miles and without sunshine the vehicle is able it can drive 250 miles.

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2385976/Stella-solar-powered-family-car-travels-420-miles-sunny-energy-positive.html

The Turanor, a solar powered yacht designed and built by Planet Solar is the first to ever circumnavigate the globe powered entirely by the sun. The Lithium-Ion that are in the Yacht store up to three days worth of sailing power and that is plenty of energy to continue at night or during overcast skies. It sails at an average speed of five knots and on clear, calm, sunny days, the yacht cruises much faster. The project had its upbringing by Raphaël Domjan of Switzerland and he wanted to demonstrate the potential that current solar technology has for clean transportation. The yacht had a diesel engine for emergency backup and it was not used even once. It cost $20 million to fund the construction of the boat. There was software created by Planet Solar which uses weather data to lure the boat into the sunniest areas. The Turanor charted thousands of miles around the world and neither the solar panels nor batteries suffered significant wear from salt or water. The Turanor project opened the door to new discoveries in solar transportation.

Its technological make-up works on the principles of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) and that is where renewable energy is made by exploiting the difference in ocean tempeatures between the surface and the seabed. The OTEC office first established itself opening in 1981 as part of the NOAA, America’s National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the marine counterpart to NASA. The OTEC began after the 1970’s oil crisis in a time where alternative power was seen as a viable way to cope with the rising price of petroleum. The fluid, ammonium can power the turbine and on a low boiling point and create enough pressure to drive a turbine and generate electricity.

The heat exchanger is able to trigger the turbines using temperature between 5 to 25  degrees Celsius and that the same temperature requiring the gas needed to be cooled and reheated is all needed to repeat the process. In order for the solar power to be activated the ammonium is vaporized in a heat exchanger using surface water from the sea that has an average temperature of 25 degrees Celsius and the gas is cooled using seawater pumped from a depth that contains a temperature of 5 degrees Celsius. The reheating process of the ammonia can be regularly repeated to continue maintaining power generation.

http://altenergymag.com/emagazine/2012/02/solar-yacht-sails-around-the-world-powered-by-nothing-more-than-the-sun/1850

The website for the entities that built the Turanor;

http://www.code-x.ch/

The Solar Impulse, was an idea of building and testing the limits of an airplane powered entirely by the sun. The whole goal of the project is to fly from San Francisco to New York using energy from sunlight and has been successfully done. The plane stopped over five cities; San Francisco, Phoenix, Dallas, St. Louis, Washington D.C. and New York City. It was all apart of the Across America mission, an initiative to invest in cleaner technologies.

http://www.solarimpulse.com/en/across-america/

The plane is built with 12,000 silicon solar to cover the more than 60-meter wingspan, which is nearly as long as a Boeing 747’s. A compact car weighs more than the airplane and its 135 microns thick solar panels can convert more than 20 percent of the incoming sunlight into electricity and there is plenty of power for takeoff and powered flight. The daily recharge of the batteries helps keep the plane aloft through the night. The takeoff needs 10 horsepower from each of four electric engines with the solar cells and pre-charged lithium ion batteries energizing it. The flies at roughly 80 kilometers per hour and can are quickly throttled back to seven horsepower when it is darting upward and 2.5 horsepower per engine is the least it needs to continue flying smoothly at roughly 80 kilometers per hour. To stay airborne until the next day, the plane has to be large to absorb quantities of sunlight. It can ascend up to 9,000 meters by mid-afternoon, hours where the sun is shining more frequently and to conserve power, the plane slowly descends to 1,500 meters where it flies on battery power until dawn.

http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=solar-powered-airplane-slide-show

The Solara, an UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) developed by Titan Aerospace runs entirely on solar power and can lift a 30 kg payload up to 20,000 meters and remain up in the sky for five years. The Solara is designed to fly at extremely high altitudes so it is above the clouds avoiding weather and the outer surface of its body mainly the wings and tail are all covered in solar panels and batteries are stored inside the wings. In daylight hours, the Solara generates kilowatts of power and there’s enough left over in the batteries to provide hundreds of watts all night. It even has the ability to replace satellites since unlike the Solara, satellites can get lost in orbit.

http://spectrum.ieee.org/automaton/robotics/aerial-robots/giant-solar-powered-uavs-are-atmospheric-satellites

If there are such things as hand crank generators or even the bicycle version why not incorporate that mechanism into electric vehicles? An inventor from southern Oregon beat was already built an electric car with a built-in cranking generating system.  Charles Samuel Greenwood spent decades of work on a human-powered vehicle has resulted into an electrical car that charges with the use of hand cranks. The four seat vehicle can move up hills at 30 miles per hour (mph) and exceed 60 mph on flat land.  The vehicle is made out of entirely recycled plastic and has a built electric plug-in unit where the rowing handles are jerked back and forth to generate electricity. If the driver wants to stop rowing then the electric motor is charged and ready for use. The design features such as an adaptable chassis and the ability to work with different kinds of batteries and technology is what makes Greenwood’s HumanCar a truly sustainable human-electric hybrid vehicle.

http://www.forbes.com/2010/08/18/hybrid-car-toyota-technology-humancar.html

http://www.cnn.com/video/#/video/tech/2008/10/08/marciano.human.car.cnn

http://www.ibtimes.co.uk/articles/43615/20100816/electric-car-human-power-humancar-imagine-ps-order.htm

http://www.humancar.com/

Here are videos from his youtube page:

 

It is possible for electric cars to utilize the force of the wind to recharge their battery systems. One of first proven cases that revealed the possibilities of a truly wind-powered car is Peter Perkins’s Solarvan project. The Yorkshire, UK resident is no expert engineer or mechanic he is a policeman who worked on the van during his free time. He managed to create a zero-emission vehicle by placing solar panels on the top of the van and even connected a small wind turbine to the vehicle.

https://web.archive.org/web/20021211051100/http://www.carkeys.co.uk/features/FE000446.htm

The Air-X wind turbine can produce 12 volts x 400 watts x 30 A of energy at speeds greater than 7mph. Peak power is generated during 28 mph of wind currents. The combination of solar cells and a wind turbine . The maximum output of 400 watts with the added solar panels that produce 200 watts of peak power is enough to fully charge batteries during the course of a day. The wind turbine is only for use when the van is parked; it is driven with the generator erected.

https://web.archive.org/web/20050307184207/http://www.solarvan.co.uk/

Amazing SOLAR and WIND Powered VAN

Tang Zhenping, a Chinese farmer assembled a car that can have its built-in battery charged using a fan he mounted to the front of his vehicle. The scrap parts from a motorcycle and electric scooters is what consists of the engine, while its steering wheel, upholstery and headlights all come from a Chinese-made Xiali hatchback. Extra power from its built-in turbine is charged by the rotation of the fan when the car’s speed reaches 40 mph and the car which would otherwise require daily charging only needs to be recharged every three days. Before Tang Zhenping, Mr. Yoon, an inventor also made a similar make-up of a wind-generated vehicle and there is a patent pending. The video was uploaded on youtube on December 22, 2006 but I haven’t any recent information. Rajeev Kumar Mishra, another inventor implemented the same mechanical design format on his solar-wind power bike. A turbine on the front of the body and a roof with a solar cell.

http://news.sky.com/story/18649/chinese-farmer-fights-smog-with-fan-power

Homemade electric (and wind-powered?) car in rural China

Mr. Yoon’s Forever Electric car ( by wind force generator)

SOLAR-WIND POWERED BICYCLE by Rajeev Kumar Mishra

The Swiss watch-making giant Rolex are known for its watches being able to provide its energy by the movement of the wearer’s arm. Now Rolex is partnering with Rinspeed to build design a fully-sized automobile using these same mechanical characteristics. The Rinspeed Model, Korperlich will have its battery charged in the same way, the Rolex’s power is generated, by the motion of the wearer’s arm. As long as the Koperlich stays moving for 55 minutes out of every hour, the battery will properly charged itself at a consistent rate.

http://www.thedailyquarterly.com/articles/tag/self-winding-car/

Chris Garner, a Canadian inventor built an amphibious vehicle that can go on land and submerged in water. It is electrically powered using a “Gyro Generator.”  The Daily Mail, who reported on this story didn’t describe how it worked or if the device is self winding.

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2247063/Perpetual-motion-submarine-car-Inventor-creates-amphibious-vehicle-powered-self-sustaining-energy.html

Unusual Fuels

There has always been a possibility that vehicles can operate on the most uncommon types of fuels. There have been reports of fuels that can on soda, plastic waste, unusable cooking oil et cetera. There is one thing in common;  they may require a special physical design in order to operate effectively. There are fuels that are made from chocolate and coffee that can power a car. A team of students from the Warwick Innovative Manufacturing Research Center have built a Formula 3 Racewar that runs on chocolate-made biodiesel. They received the waste chocolate from Cadbury’s in Birmingham, England. The steering wheel is made from nano-scale cellulosic fibers extracted from carrot pulp left over from juicing. It is made into a red paste that can be molded and sets to become a hard polymer. Parts of the front wing and mirrors are made Potato starch and flax fiber. The car seats used a foam made from soybean oil foam and recycled polyester, plant-based lubricants, a side pod made from recycled bottles, a recycled carbon-fiber engine cover and radiator coatings that transform ozone to oxygen. The speeds of the F3 car was clocked at 135 mph when it drove on its modified BMV 2-liter, 4-cylinder turbodiesel engine but it is not competitive with the latest track cars. As a part of their rules, Formula 3 does not allow for chocolate-derived biodiesel fuel to undergo any racing with other conventional cars.

http://wheels.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/04/22/an-eco-racecar-that-runs-on-chocolate/?_r=0

Twenty five years ago a man named Paul Patone invented a working engine that can run on 80% carbonated beverage Mountain Dew. He tried to share his invention publicly and corrupted Utah officials and businesses men wanted to profit from his invention and forced him to sell it. Patone’s refusal of allowing them to make money off of his invention made those officials put him into a mental at the Utah State Hospital as he was framed for securities fraud. He was released in May of 2009 after taking abuse in March of 2006.

http://gizmodo.com/5329681/inventor-creates-mountain-dew+fueled-engine-gets-framed-by-corrupt-utah-officials

The properties of cerium oxide, also known as ceria, can absorb a small amount of carbon dioxide and when ceria is heated it morphs itself into a liquid fuel as the of carbon monoxide and hydrogen that was once water and carbon dioxide pumped into a cylinder tube to create the substance. The combination of hydrogen and carbon monoxide that is created through this thermochemical break down. It is a known as syngas being combustible and has less than half the energy density of natural gas but is classified and used as a fuel source or for production of other chemicals. The researchers involved say the device can produce methane. The prototype made by the California Institute of Technology and the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology would need to have the suitable layers of insulation to become feasible because most of the energy is lost through heat loss through the reactor’s wall or through the re-radiation of sunlight back through the device’s aperture and smaller versions combined with better insulation would increase efficiency rates of up to 19 percent.

http://www.gizmag.com/breakthrough-solar-reactor-makes-fuel-from-sunlight/17377/

Narasimharao Kondamudi, Susanta Mohapatra and Manoranjan Misra, researchers of the University of Nevada at Reno have found that coffee grounds can yield 10-15% of biodiesel by weight relatively easily. A Starbucks that was nearby campus supplied the researchers with leftover coffee grounds to conduct their experiment. Diesel derived from coffee is not as thick as many other biodiesels so it can be burned with little or no tinkering. Transsesterification is a procedure that makes the coffee-diesel by placing the coffee grounds in alcohol in the presence of a catalyst. The coffee grounds are dried over night and common chemical solvents, such as hexane, ether and dichloromethane, are added to dissolve the oils. The grounds are then filtered out and the solvents separated for reuse with the next batch of coffee grounds to repeat the process. The remaining oil is treated with an alkali to remove fatty acids to prevent the oil from forming a soap-like residue. The crude biodiesel is heated to about 100C to remove any water, and treated with methanol and catalyst; that is the procedure in which defines the transesterification. After undergo a cooling stage at room temperature letting it stand, the biodiesel floats up, leaving a layer of glycerine at the bottom. These layers are separated and biodiesel is cleaned to remove any residues.

The leftovers of food scraps and recycled cooking oil can enable a household to make that type of biodiesel, but coffee-based biodiesel requires better suited to larger-scale processes. Between 5-7 kilograms of coffee grounds depending on the oil content are needed to make it. To continue their experiment to see what is required to make 1 gallon, a facility uses between 19kg and 26kg of coffee grounds. Researchers estimated that the coffee biofuel cost about $1 per gallon to make in a medium-sized installation. Commercial production of coffee fuel can be collected from big-coffee-chains and caferterias. The United States Department of Agriculture, more than 7m tonnes of coffee are consumed every year, and the researchers estimated that could produce 340m of this version of biodiesel.

http://www.economist.com/node/13174477

The Carpuccino, a 1988 Volkswagen Scirocco was modified to run on ground coffee, and is suppose to drive 210 miles between Manchester and London. As described from the diagram provided by the Daily Mail, Coffee granules are poured into a gas cylinder and heated to 700c in a charcoal fire. The coffee breaks down into hydrogen and carbon monoxide. The gas vapors are sucked into a radiator-type pipes, where it cools down. The gas is fed to two filters inside the boot. One is a cyclone filter which spins out any solid matter. The other is a cylinder filled with loft insulation to prevent hot tar getting into the engine. The clean gas is fed through the front grille and into the engine where it burns, powering the vehicle.

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-1255867/Cappuccino-car-runs-coffee–use-filter-lane.html

The Styrofoam cup can be another source of fuel as Mechanical engineers at Iowa State University in Amen have boosted the power out of biodiesel by adding waste plastic. Song-Charng Kong, a co-author of the study had his experiment funded by the Department of Defense to find ways of disposing trash and generating power under battlefield conditions. Kong and his colleagues dissolved polystyrene, the polymer used to make disposable foam plates and cups into biodiesel at concentrations ranging from 2 to 20% polystyrene by weight. A polystyrene cup will easily dissolve into biodiesel but the plastic doesn’t break down as well as in petroleum-based diesel and other liquid fuels. There is troubling characteristics with this type of plastic fuel. Although there is a 5% increase to the power output, it weakens for plastic concentrations above 5%. The thicker fluid creates greater pressure inside the generator’s fuel injector causing earlier injection of fuel into the engine and overworking its output. The fluid gets so viscous that the engine doesn’t fully combust and power output decreases. At 15% polystyrene, the fuel is so thick the fuel injection pump overheats. When there a greater concentration of polystyrene, a larger expulsion of emissions such as carbon monoxide, soot, and nitrous oxide fumes occur.

http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn17066-plastic-cups-could-boost-auto-performance.html

Lanza Tech is capturing the leaking gases from steel mills which would have otherwise been burnt into the atmosphere as carbon dioxide and making it into Jet fuel. Swedish Bio-fuels has technology to where the captured gas is fermented and chemically converted into cleaner aviation fuels.

http://www.gizmag.com/virgin-airways-low-carbon-jet-fuel/20126/

Researchers at Edinburgh Napier University developed a chemical process using the two main by-products of whisky production to make butanol. Scotland produces so much whisky adding up to 1,600 million liters of pot ale and 187,000 tons of draft left over and the waste material can be used to create a biobutanol. It produces more than ethanol by 30 percent and can be used to run ordinary cars, and requires no adaptions.  Petrol pumps already in use are planning to have this new bio-fuel available. It will be mixed with conventional gasoline (petroleum) already in use or offered in a pure form.

http://www.care2.com/greenliving/whisky-powered-cars-for-scotland.html

Plastic Waste-to-Fuel Tested

Jeremy Ross a British pilot has flown  from Sydney to London in a Cessna 182 aircraft powered by diesel from the “end-of-life” plastic (ELP) waste. Cynar produced a new technology that safely converts what they call end-of-life or plastic that cannot be recycled into fuel. The usable fuel is cleaner, low in sulphur, and when comparing diesel, a higher cetane than generic diesel. The technology uses distillation  and pyrolysis and has successfully diverted End-of-Life-Plastic from landfills. The pyrolysis process is where plastics are heated in an oxygen-free environment to prevent them from burning, which breaks into the component hydrocarbons to create the equivalent of a petroleum distillate. There is no burning of plastics only a melting that doesn’t emit toxic fumes into the environment.

http://www.ataltitude.com.au/plastics/plastic-fuel-it-s-future

http://www.cynarplc.com/

The plastic was collected from the 16 countries he was scheduled to stop: His provisional route stops at 16 locations: Bundaberg, Darwin (Australia), Bali, Jakarta, Medan (Indonesia), Chang Mai (Thailand), Chittagong (Bangladesh), New Delhi (India), Karachi (Pakistan), Muscat (Oman), Abu Dhabi (UAE), Amman (Jordan), Cairo (Egypt), Rhodes (Greece), Nice (France), London. Rowsell, a hobby pilot and insurance broker is probably the first person to test this plastic-to-fuel converted gas in an an airplane. In its very early stages of aero engine tests the plastic based fuel was only tested in cars but not aircraft.

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/newstopics/howaboutthat/9889896/Pilot-attempts-first-flight-powered-only-by-household-plastic-waste.html

Thorium, a silvery metal has similar power generation capabilities and is a safer alternative. It is four times more plentiful than uranium and a reactor filled with thorium will leave far less long-lived waste products than one fueled by uranium or plutonium. Thorium has a greater capability of generating energy than uranium based nuclear fuel. “Two hundred tonnes of uranium can give you the same amount of energy you can get from one tonne of thorium,” Rubbia told the BBC News in a April, 12, 2011 interview. Laser Power Systems from Connecticut is developing a method of propulsion that uses thorium to produce electricity to power a car engine. Its density produces massive amounts of heat and gram of thorium produces more energy than 28,000 liters of petro according to CEO, Charles Stevens; eight grams of it can power a vehicle for a lifetime.

http://www.gizmag.com/thorium-nuclear-power/18204/

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-13040853

http://www.caradvice.com.au/132921/the-thorium-powered-car-eight-grams-one-million-miles/

The eVionyx uses a zinc air metal fuel generator that can refuel itself. The generator was used to charge Malaysian-made nickel zinc batteries that provide electricity to the motor and the now can be driven. with eVionyx’s patented solid-state membrane technology it stops the build-up of dendrite a problem that many companies who have developed and commercialize zinc air fuel cells and nick zinc batteries for a century but had to no clue how to keep dendrite from growing.

http://www.earthtoys.com/emagazine.php?issue_number=04.02.01&article=evionyx

The Abertay’s School of Comtemporary Sciences have investigated how the residues from brewing and distilled grain alcohol can be converted into bioethanol. The waste byproducts of beer at the breweries made also contribute to the large production of biofuels. Professor Graeme Walker, the man leading the investigation was concerned about large tracts of land being used by the US and Brazil. Walker also realized the technical challenges faced when morphing waste biomass into usable fuels.

http://www.gizmag.com/go/7866/

Plant Based Fuel Sources

Plant-based fuel sources are a readily available alternative compared to man-made synthetic versions. Each plant that produces its form of bio-fuel seems to unique properties that can be beneficial or detrimental to the vehicle. Bio-fuels made out of Hemp have renewable capabilities over the plant being able to grow in even the most infertile of soils. That would save the high-quality land that is needed to grow food and it needs little fertilizers, or high-grade inputs to flourish. The biodiesel of hemp has a 97 percent conversion passing laboratory test that prove that it can used at lower temperatures than any other biodiesel currently on the market.

http://www.gizmag.com/hemp-biodiesel-dope-biofuel/16852/

Jojoba, a desert shrub that grows up to 4.5 meters high, producing nuts that contain the plant’s volume in oil. Known for being an ingredient in cosmetics,  and as a base for shampoos and make-up can be used as a motor fuel. Jojoba oil releases a lot of energy when it burns and is chemically stable at the high temperatures and pressures in a working engine. Tests were conducted by Mohamed Selim and his colleagues at the United Arab Emirates University in Al-Ain and at the Helwan University in Cairo. An array of sensors were connected to make distinctions between monitoring a diesel engine running on regular diesel fuel and another one that was burning a fuel called jojoba methyl ester, which was made by adding a dash of methanol and a catalyst to raw jojoba oil. The engine ran more quietly on jojoba oil because it took a longer time for combustion gases to reach the maximum pressure in the cylinder. Jojoba offers much more safety and it is cleaner. It contains less carbon than fuels like diesel, which means lower emissions of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and soot. Unlike diesel, jojobo oil contains no sulphur thus the exhaust would not be spewing any harmful sulphur oxides and the cylinders will not build up any corrosion of sulphuric acid, that makes the engine last longer.

The higher “flashpoint” than diesel makes it less likely to explode while being stored or transported. Growing enough jojobo to make it surpass diesel needs huge quantities of seeds in which only a private sector or government can afford. The deserts of the American southwest and Northwest Mexico grow jojobo. People in Middle Eastern countries and South America cultivate the plant and in Egypt, arable farms started planting jojoba shrubs to use the nut oil as a fuel.

http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn3464-jojoba-oil-could-fuel-cars-and-trucks.html

A US-Chinese renewable energy partnership ended with a Boeing 747 flying to China in two hours landing at the Beijing International Airport. It took 10 tons of bio-fuels made out of Tung tree oil when the Civil Aviation Administration of China made trial flights on a Boeing 747. These tests were conducted to find out if biofuels are able to be used for commercial flights.  Shen Diancheng, vice president of PetroChina Company Ltd, said that it took them 10 years to overcome the technical barriers of converting the oil extracted from the seeds into a fuel that could power airplanes. The seeds were harvested from Tung trees growing on mountain hills and wastelands in China. PetroChina has planted millions of acres of the trees, mainly in the provinces of Yunnan, Sichuan, and Jiangxi, Diancheng said and the company expects to supply 60,000 tons of gas made from Tung oil annually by 2014.

http://www.qiaolab.com/qiao-lab/green-aviation-jumbo-jet-flies-on-nut-oil-fuel.html

Scientists discovered a fungus living inside the Ulmo tree in the Patagonia rainforest can form a multitude of different molecules made of hydrogen and carbon found in diesel. The fungus given the name “Gliocladium roseum, can make bio-diesel compounds without being processed unlike plant-made diesel. The fungus can already digest cellulose but other plant wastes must go undergo a process of being treated with enzymes called cellulases that convert the cellulose into sugar. Microbes then ferment this sugar into ethanol that can be used as a fuel. When scientists grew Gliocladium roseum in the lab, it concocted the same diesel that we use to run our vehicles and that is because it produces a lot of hydrocarbons and other biological molecules.

http://phys.org/news144958975.html

The Department of Agriculture is funding University of Central professor Henry Daniell to continue his project in developing his method of fermenting ethanol out of non-food products including sugarcane, switchgrass, straw, orange peels, and newspapers. Daniell’s technique uses plant-derived enzyme formulas to break down food wastage into sugars which is then changed into ethanol. Ethanol created using Daniell’s approach producers much lesser greenhouse gas emissions than gasoline and electricity. Corn products even spew out more greenhouse gases than gasoline.

http://phys.org/news185701592.html

In the South Pacific islands, many citizens are making bio-diesel out coconut oil and its origins can be trace to warring armies in the Philippines using coconut oil to run diesel engines. The mixture consists of coconut oil with diesel, kerosene, and ethanol. Coconuts would save Papua New Guinea millions of kina (the nations’ currency) since they can switch to making their own bio-diesel using the coconuts they have in their country instead of importing diesel for cars, trucks, and generators.

http://www.kokonutpacific.com.au/CoconutBiofuelKP.php

The first time bio-fuels has been tested on a commercial aircraft was by British carrier, Virgin Atlantic Airways partly powered their Boeing 747-400 with a biofuel made from babassu nuts and coconut oil. The jumbo jet flew from London to Amsterdam cruising with one unmodified engine running on a mix of about 25 percent bio-fuel and the rest coming standard jet kerosene.  The flight did not carry any passengers and the whole purpose of the project involving Virgin Atlantic, Boeing, and the engine maker General Electric is to develop other alternatives to jet fuel to cope with rising oil prices and reduce global warming.

http://www.nytimes.com/2008/02/25/business/25virgin.html?_r=0

Sawdust biofuel

Yuan Kou and his team at the Peking University in Beijing, China have transformed sawdust into alkanes and alcohols have transformed sawdust into alkanes and alcohol needed for biofuels. They broke down and took out the Lignin which has carbon-oxygen-carbon bonds that link together hydrocarbon chains. Separating those C-O-C bonds makes smaller hydrocarbons.

http://timber.fordaq.com/fordaq/news/sawdust_biofuel_biofuels_ethanol_lignin_17662.html

Rapeseed is recognized by scientists as one of the best raw materials for bio-diesel. Rapeseed has a high oil content and the new species that Chinese scientists bred and cultivated contained a record high 54.72 percent of oil. This is why Chinese scientists are working on new technologies to increase their yield of rapeseed since the country is making only 100,000 tons of bio-diesel a year of out of rapeseed. China grows 7 million hectares of rape, with an annual output of 13 million to 14 million tons.

Oil-thirsty China turns to farmland for diesel oil

news.xinhuanet.com/english/2007-03/28/content_5908786.htm

The beaches in coastal areas experience seaweed that ends up in shore. The seaweed contains a congregation of salts and sand and removing it can be a burden as it adds a lot of weight and takes up tons of space in landfills. The sand that is absorbed with the seaweed eve replaced with newer sand with a truck. Spanish researchers at the University of Alicante, Spain have built a machine that cleans the vegetative matter by by leaving behind particles of salt, sand, and even water and then using seaweed for power.  The machine functions in a way that involves pumping in salt water from the nearby ocean. That water would drain back with the eroding sand that would have previously landed at shore. Residue of the seaweed would collapse onto the second chamber and desalinated sea water would wash most of the salt content of the seaweed. In the third chamber, the seaweed is dried using a solar power-heated air and chunks are compressed into bundles that can be used to run power plants.

http://gajitz.com/brilliant-seaweed-recycling-plan-turns-waste-to-clean-fuel/

If there are vehicles and power plants that generate energy using biological wastes then what’s the point of using the oils beneath the surface? A doctor out of Beverly Hills California who specialized in liposuction to power his Ford SUV and his girlfriend’s Lincoln Navigator. The doctor, Craig Alan Bittner, has to close, the law in California doesn’t allow the use of medical waste to power vehicles. Patients who under went liposuction under Bitter filed lawsuits. Three of the individuals getting liposuction from the doctor have gotten deformities from his sessions.

http://www.foxnews.com/story/2008/12/26/california-surgeon-used-human-fat-to-power-car/

The Hobby Airport runs its rental shuttles on synthetic diesel made from waste cooking oil and animal fats. Mansfield Oil has distributed this fatty renewable diesel to Enterprise Rent-A-Car, National Car Rental and Alamo Rent A Car and even had decals that note that their tanks are filled with a renewable form of diesel, distributed by Mansfield Oil Co. The Georgia-based transportation fuel company gets the diesel from the Dynamic Fuels plant in Louisiana and they can produce 75 million gallons of synthetic fuel per year. Mansfield Oil President Doug Haugh said that fuel made from cook oil waste and animal fats should reduce the shuttles’ carbon emissions by up to 70 percent.

http://www.chron.com/business/article/Fat-fuel-makes-for-leaner-emissions-from-car-3917509.php

The university of Georgia has been using chicken fat to heat buildings and water on its campus in the early 2000’s. They spent $30,000 to convert one of the school’s steam boilers to be able to burn animal fat. Swift and Company began burning animal fat as fuel in December 2000. Animal fattening is produced in the slaughtering and fabrication process of livestock and poultry. The costs to use animal fat fuels is cheaper than coal or oil.

http://www.thebatt.com/2.8482/animal-fat-as-fuel-alternative-1.1213480

More and more commercial airplanes and trains are adopting the use of fuels made from animal fatty byproducts. Dynamic Fuels, sold millions of gallons of the animal-fat biodiesel to Norfolk Southern railroad where a mixture of conventional jet fuel and the renewable version will be used to run freight trains.

http://www.ecorazzi.com/2012/02/20/animal-fats-as-fuel-for-planes-trains-and-automobiles/

Tyson Foods, the largest meat producer in the country and energy technology company Syntroleum have created a joint venture, Dynamic Fuels to create fuel out of meat scraps. Vehicles like airplanes, automobiles, and trains can be powered by burning this meat-based biodiesel. Five thousand barrels are produced daily and Dynamic Fuels has made deals with several airlines and with Northern Southern railroads to run their trains on this meat-based bio-fuel. Dynamic Fuels signed a deal with energy giant ConocoPhillips in 2007.

http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/02/21/tyson-animal-fat-renewable-diesel_n_1290715.html

NASA’s Dryden Flight Research Center in California made tests of using renewable bio-fuel made from chicken and beef tallow in one of their four commercial airplanes. When comparing the performance of bio-fuels versus two man-made fuels derived from coal and natural gas. Researchers found that there was smaller reductions in gaseous emissions when using these synthetic versions and when Bruce Anderson, the chief scientist of NASA’s Langley Research Center in Virginia experimented with the fat-based bio-fuel he found out that black carbon emissions were 90 percent less at idle and almost 60 percent less at takeoff thrust. Anderson added that the bio-fuel produced much lower sulfate, organic aerosol, and hazardous emissions than standard jet fuel. Rubel Del Rosario, who manages the project for NASA’s Subsonic Fixed Wing Project, at the NASA Glenn Research Center in Ohio noted on bio-fuel use in jet engines being a cleaner-burning and pollutant suppressing qualities.

http://www.nasa.gov/topics/aeronautics/features/aafex_biofuels.html#.UpKcOCfBHFw

The United States military has looked into the applications of alternative fuels and their testing of bio-fuels based on plants and animal fats have been showing tremendous promise. They found other benefits besides costs; camelina, is an oil-bearing plant that is drought and freeze-resistant. The US Government has begun to offer incentives for farmers if they grow camelina. The lack of market for these fuels is what is making their use for the military expensive and officials determined that a 10-year contract from the U.S. Navy will drive down the prices. These fuels will hopefully power tanks and f-16 jet aircraft.

http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/10/18/animal-fat-crude-oil-f-16s_n_1018072.html#s324741&title=Lipodiesel

The Tyson Foods of Alberta Canada have partnered with Syntroleum Corp and ConocoPhillips to make bio-fuels from beef tallow. This move has influenced the whole city of Calgary to where they want to power their entire fleet of trucks and buses with biodiesel produced Alberta beef tallow. Tallow-waste bio-fuel doesn’t displace food crops such as corn and there were debates on its effectiveness that treehugger cited that the farming industry already creates more waste byproducts.

http://www.treehugger.com/renewable-energy/beef-fat-turned-into-fuel-at-new-calgary-biodiesel-plant.html

The alligator fat has a high lipid content which makes it an ideal fat-based fuel. Researchers at the University of Louisiana determined their hypothesis by microwaving pieces of alligator meat to separate the fat and added a chemical solvent. Microwaving it resulted in a 61 percent recovery by weight and decided to refine some biodiesel shortly after. The fatty acid’s meet all of the requirements for high-quality biodiesel except for a little excess calcium and magnesium. With an improved refining process they can get rid of the extra mineral content.

http://www.popsci.com/science/article/2011-08/gator-made-biodiesel-could-fill-your-tank-and-fuel-renewable-resource-investment-south

Al Stiller, West Virginia University chemical engineering professor discovered that chicken manure can be used as a fuel.  It is liquefied, cooked and sterilized by heat and intense pressure and can be blended with diesel to power an engine with no obvious alteration in performance. Stiller is clueless as to why his discovery works and some have already considered it a fringe science. Chicken farms in West Virginia, Maryland, Virginia and other states are accused of contaminating streams and rivers with runoff that is high in nitrogen from manure plowed into the ground as fertilizer. That is why he has focused on solving that problem with his chicken-to-fuel solution. The West Virginia Development Office has since kicked in funds and the scientists have been in partnership with Northco Corporation, a Morgantown company that manufactures mining equipment. Still is studying the practical economics for a farm and is investigated the potential of using residue that is left behind during the liquidation process of manure.

http://www.iol.co.za/scitech/technology/chicken-poo-may-be-the-fuel-of-the-future-1.78714#.Uq1nXvvBHFw

TOTO, a Japanese manufacturer of toilets built a motorcycle. That is distinctive compared to other motorbikes is that Neo is intended to run on entirely human waste and can also write things in the air using “residual light imagery,” as well as play music.

http://www.weirdasianews.com/2011/10/14/bike-runs-feces-unveiled-japan/

AMEC, A Montreal, Quebec company is diverted discarded diapers away from the landfills and using as process known as pyrolysis to morph diapers into diesel. Luciano Piciacchia, an engineer and vice-president of Amec’s Quebec office. In late 2007, they plan to convert about 30,000 diapers and one-quarter of the diapers are dumped in Quebec’s landfills. Those diapers could be made into about 11,000 tonnes of diesel fuel costing 50 cents per liter. Pyrolysis is another name for thermal cracking and that is where the diapers are heated in a closed, controlled environment at temperatures of up to 600C without air using the excrement to break down thermally. It works in a close system so there are no emissions but the drawback is the diaper diesel can be used in any industrial application but its not suitable for automobiles.

http://www.thestar.com/life/2007/11/19/turning_dirty_diapers_into_diesel_fuel.html

A factory in Carthage, Missouri uses thermal depolymerization, its a way to combine heat and pressure to convert the feedstock into a oil fuel. The use of thermal depolymerization can turn anything containing carbon into oil: agricultural byproducts, used tires, sewage, even discarded appliances. Just oil, natural gas, carbon, minerals and water come out. Changing Worlds Technology, based out of New York has used the technology to make 3,000 barrels of crude biofuel each week. There is disadvantages to making biofuels this way because turkey guts costs $80 dollars per barrel, that is more than conventional oil.

http://www.emagazine.com/includes/print-article/magazine-archive/7021/

The Genesis plant in Mead, Nebraska has a unique close-looped system that is 12 times more efficient than any other fuel source in the world. Building 15 more closed-poop plants around the country is Genesis is planning to do and the efficiencies with their patented technology could drop the cost of producing ethanol 25 to 30 cents a gallon.

Mead Opens Nation’s First Cow-Pie Ethanol Plant
Close-Loop System Promises Cheaper Fuel Prices
UPDATED 5:20 AM CDT Jun 28, 2007

http://www.ketv.com/Mead-Opens-Nation-s-First-Cow-Pie-Ethanol-Plant/-/9675214/10215388/-/256jg2/-/index.html#ixzz2dTrL506O

Many manufacturers of electric vehicles and biofuels have came a long way in their expanding improvements. Each type of biofuels turned out to have many pros and cons when being compared to conventional petrol fuels.  There are some that hardly released any greenhouse emissions and aided in better efficiency of the motor. A vehicle that can cruise for long distances on fewer MPG (miles per gallon) is feasible and it does take ingenious designs when engineering its mechanical workings. Some of these biofuels mentioned require an alteration in the components of the vehicle to safely combust these synthetically made fuels.

On June 15, 2006 at the Michelin Challenge Binendum in Paris there was a special prototype at the global summit. The Volvo Car Corporation recognizes that renewable fuels alone can’t replace the fossil fuels of today. That is why they made a multi-fuel Volvo that runs on five different fuel types; hythane (10% hydrogen and 90% methane), biomethane, natural gas, bioethanol E85 and petrol. The parts that make up the whole 2006-made multi-fuel prototype: the engine, the tanks, the transmission, and the fuel system are optimized for the five different fuels and can be started directly on gas.

The parts that make up the multi-fuel vehicle – the engine, the tanks, the transmission and the fuel system – are optimized for the five different fuels. The engine is designed to automatically adjusts itself to the right blend of gaseous or liquid fuels. To switch fuel types, the driver presses a button. It can be started directly on gas, which is unique for this system. The multi-fuel has a motor effect of 200 bhp and accelerates quickly up to speed, 0–100 km/h in 8.7 seconds. This makes the car more responsive and smooth to drive. The multi-fuel is turbo charged to achieve high performance on any of the five different fuel types, says Morén. That makes it great fun to drive and we are very proud of its performance.The multi-fuel is remarkably clean and meets the emission standards for Euro 4 and the proposed levels for Euro 5. An alternative catalyst system has also been developed to meet the tough demands on extremely low tailpipe emissions for PZEV/SULEV on the US market. The vehicle has two catalysts, one close coupled to the engine that lowers initial start emissions, and one under the floor for reduced high-speed emissions. The double catalysts and advanced engine control system lead to very low emissions. High-temperature materials in the exhaust manifold and turbo allow extremely high exhaust gas temperatures of up to 1050 °C. This enables the car to run cleaner, accelerate quicker and operate smoother at higher speed.

http://www.gizmag.com/go/5740/

The idea of having any vehicle that cruises on the land, sea, or air and has a infinite MPG (miles per gallon) has never been on the open market. The thorium substance that provide infinite power like nuclear power is probably the only reported free energy source available but Aussies are only reported to only have thorium and that doesn’t give its use an equal competitive market. The Luxury Sea MI675 has an abundant supply of seawater to be regenerating the hydrogen its ran on. These specially made fuelless vehicles need a consistent resupply of water that is available. The  Al-Air battery made out of zinc, lithium, zinc, and aluminum and oxygen being absorbed from the air reacting to oxidization of the oils. That is what Phienergy made but a refill of water is needed to restore the electrolyte that it is slowly draining to maintain its infinite amount of power.

There are air-to-water converters that can siphons the air that we breathe and turn it into water that is drinkable. Environmental Protection Agency, cited the air being more contaminated because of the household cleaning products, tobacco smoke, wet carpeting and pets; outdoor air is much cleaner and the outside atmosphere is an almost infinite source of water supply. The Waterwall made by Zwebner is an exterior wall that uses the much more humid outdoor air and condenses it and into actual physical water.

http://www.nbcnews.com/id/28003681/ns/technology_and_science-innovation/t/turning-air-water-gadget-does-just/#.UrpQ2vvBHFw

An atmosphere-to-water conversion device connected to a hydrogen-ran vehicle or an engine powered by water may be the device that can provide an infinite mpg function. The EcoloBlue 28 Atmospheric Water Generator and Skywater 300 Atmospheric Water Generator are currently being sold online and are ready to take orders from any buying customer. If someone is able to combine a similar unit with any hydrogen powered car then they just have made an example of a free energy land or aerial vehicle.

EcoloBlue 28 Atmospheric Water Generator – Interview – NBC6

Skywater 300 Atmospheric Water Generator

Using these devices to refill the tank or containers of water to have a good continue of H2O fuel. There was also a clever set up of wind turbines connected to the car that can use the force and pressure of wind to recharge the battery. Wind Turbines are a readily available charging tool that can be a source of infinite mpg power and small versions of windmills avert a city from changing its urban structure. Peter Perkins’s Solar van charged his car with his portable wind turbine plugged in while its parked.

Rides With Chuck, a youtube videographer who reports on stories about people’s personal vehicles published a piece about Dave the Wave who charges his electric-powered Citicar with a household wind turbine. According to Dave, as long as the wind is blowing he has unlimited power. The solar-wind power combination where Peter Perkin’s used solar panels to have extra juice when keeping the batteries charged makes his car a puerly proven example of an all-electric hybrid vehicle.

Citicar,  wind powered electric car by RideswithChuck

The solar sensing system built into the Turanor vessel accurately tracked sunlight to where the back-up diesel was rarely used. There was a lot of photovoltaic plates on the ship’s body but as long as there was sunlight then the vessel wouldn’t shut down. Design in the body and structure of the car realistically can allow conservation of fuel due to the vehicle having a faster speed which increases its MPR (mileage-per-range). The PAC-Car II was able to cover 5383 kilometers (3344.84 miles) and burned an amount of fuel with one 1 liter of hydrogen. A lightweight engine has made Peter Dearman’s version of his Air Car potentially practicable plus a car that doesn’t require batteries lessens its payload.

Compressed air that is heated can actually stimulate the physical mechanism of the pistons because the pressure can create movement. The compressed air is stored in its chassis and the OneCat five-seater’s burner increases the momentum of the Pistons . Air filled parts and components from the engine to the tanks built-in chassis can permit the car to cover more miles in range. Air powered cars do not have any batteries and that has been a hindrance in improving the fuel efficiency for the electric car due to excessive bulkage.

Electric cars tend to be bundled with battery units that add weight to the vehicle. Ultracapacitors sustain large portions of its electrical charge and the electronic part with with measurements that are equivalent to postal stamp and small beverage container may be the key part in building electrically charged vehicles. Ultracapacitors will effectively ration the power of electric vehicles without additional batteries.  The automobiles engines that runs on both liquid fuels and electricity are reported to be the only example of dealing with excess battery usage. Some hybrids even charge the battery using the gas that run’s the vehicle but what if both gas and battery power are drained?

Electric cars need investments in battery design and improvements in their energy-inducing capabilities. Ultra-capacitors will have a readily available market for electric cars. Solar, wind, and the human-powered generating systems can be rigged with ultra-capacitors to provide a more infinite amount of energy. Manual power generation of the battery in vehicles is probably another good mechanical technique for an electric car to have unlimited power available at one’s disposal while cruising at the same time. The Human Car and the mechanical principles of self winding clocks will be a guaranteed sure to make electric cars practicable without altering the infrastructure of a city. If one is to combine the advantages of the special features identified with each synthetic fuel or the design characteristic of a specific fuelless vehicle they can finally make replacements of fossil fuels or just semi-permanently avoid a shortage.

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